The Balance Beam Situation

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WTF Is NCAA Scoring – Floor Edition

Before the NCAA season begins, it’s time for the now-annual venture into the murky world of NCAA scoring for those who might want to know a little more about what’s going on. Fair warning: you’ll be saner if you don’t.

For the full experience, be sure to check out of the previous posts on vault, bars, and beam.

Composing a routine

Routine requirements
  • At minimum, an NCAA routine must include 3 A-valued elements, 3 B-valued elements, and 2 C-valued elements.

You don’t have to worry about this part. It’s basic and every routine you see in NCAA will have been designed specifically to meet this standard. Otherwise, you wouldn’t see it in competition.

Gymnasts must also fulfill a series of special composition requirements, each worth 0.2. On floor, those four requirements are

1 – One acrobatic combination, featuring 2 saltos. The 2 saltos can be directly connected to each other or indirectly connected to each other within a single tumbling pass, but they must appear in the same line of acrobatic skills.

2 – Three different saltos within the exercise. Because the majority of gymnasts perform three tumbling passes, one of which must be a combination pass, they tend to have four different saltos in their routines anyway, easily fulfilling the minimum requirement of three.

Some will not have four, either because they are performing a routine with just two passes, or because they are repeating a skill in one of the passes, but they must have at least three.

3 – The final tumbling pass must end with a C element. This is another of our requirement lies. NCAA floor has an additional up-to-level deduction that requires the final pass to feature either a D element or a C element done in bonus combination, so that ends up being the real requirement. You can’t just do an isolated, random C as your final pass.

It’s still not much of a problem. This requirement simply exists to prevent people from opening huge, getting all their bonus, and then going, “My last pass is a back tuck, suckasssss.”

4 – Passage of dance elements. This requirement will be familiar for elite watchers. In NCAA, gymnasts must perform two dance elements either in direct connection or in an indirect dance passage connected by that stupid rigor mortis prancing that pretends it’s ballet.

The difference between NCAA and elite in this regard is that we see many, many more gymnasts in NCAA opt for the direct connection of dance elements because, unlike in elite, they receive connection bonus for those dance combinations.

Missing any one of these requirements is a 0.2 deduction from the start value. A gymnast with a routine that includes 3 As, 3 Bs, and 2 Cs, and that fulfills the four requirements above will begin with a 9.50 start value.


From there, gymnasts attempt to get to a 10.0 start value by earning up to five tenths of bonus. Bonus is earned in two categories.

1) Skill value – Each D element earns 0.1 in bonus, and each E element earns 0.2.

2) Connection value – There are super tons of formulae through which gymnasts can receive connection bonus on floor.

Direct acrobatic connections
A+C = 0.1
A+A+C = 0.1
B+B = 0.1 (as long as the skills are different)
B+C = 0.2
A+D = 0.2

Indirect acrobatic connections
A+A+C = 0.1
A+D = 0.1
C+C = 0.2

Dance or mixed connections
B+D = 0.1
C+C = 0.1
D salto + A jump = 0.1
C+A+A (salto/dance/salto) = 0.1
C+D = 0.2

To earn the full five tenths of bonus, at least one tenth must come from each category (skill value and connection value), so gymnasts can’t load up exclusively on one category or another.

In an extra twist on floor, at least one of the tenths of bonus must also come from dance elements (leaps, jumps, turns), so it can’t all be from tumbling.

But, as long as you get your 5 tenths of bonus, and fulfill all the requirements above, you’ve got your 10.0 start!

Composition deductions

There are several “up to level” composition deductions that routines must avoid on floor.

1) The routine must include either one E element, or two D elements (one of which must be acrobatic). Otherwise, .10 off.

2) The combination pass must include at least one salto of C value. Otherwise, .10 off.

3) As mentioned above, the final pass must end with a D salto, or C salto in a combination that earns bonus. Otherwise, .10 off.

Routines must also include both forward and backward salto, otherwise .10 off.

Gymnasts can perform only two tumbling passes if they wish (instead of the traditional three), but there are special composition rules regarding routines with only two passes. In two-pass routines, one of the passes must be at least a D salto, and the other pass must be either a D salto or garner 0.2 in CV. This is how NCAA prevents gymnasts from just filling up on dance elements.


Let’s go through an example routine, where I’ll point out exactly how it meets each of the composition and bonus topics outlined above.

Special requirements

1 – One combination pass, featuring 2 saltos. 
Webb’s second pass is a back 1.5 + front 1/1, fulfilling this requirement.

2 – Three different saltos within the exercise.
Webb performs a front 2/1, back 1.5, front 1/1, and front 1.5 in this routine—four different saltos.

3 – The final tumbling pass must end with a C element.
The final tumbling pass is a front 1.5 (rudi), a D element.

4 – Passage of dance elements.
The direct combination of split leap full and split jump full fulfills this requirement.

Composition deductions

1 – The routine must include either one E element, or two D elements (one of which must be acrobatic).
This routine includes an E element, the opening front 2/1.

2 – The combination pass must include at least one salto of C value.
The combination pass, in fact, includes two saltos of C value.

3 – The final pass must end with a D salto, or C salto in a combination that earns bonus.
Once again, the final tumbling pass is a front 1.5 (rudi), a D element.


Webb’s opening pass is a front 2/1, an E skill, earning 0.2 in bonus.

The next pass, the back 1.5 + front 1/1, is a directly connected C+C pass, earning another 0.2 in bonus.

The leap combination of split leap full and split jump full is C+C, for 0.1 bonus.

The final pass is a rudi, a D skill that earns 0.1 in bonus.

So, Webb is set with 6 tenths of bonus in this routine, the five necessary ones and an extra tenth for luck.

Skill values

Here are the major skill values you’ll want to know for floor.

Leaps and jumps

Split leap – A
Split leap/jump ½ – B
Split leap/jump full – C
Split leap/jump 1.5 – D
Switch leap – B
Switch ½ – C
Switch full – D
Switch side – C
Switch ring – C
Straddle jump/½ – B
Popa – C
L hop full – B
Wolf jump 1/1 – C


Full turn – A
Double turn – C
Triple turn – D
L turn – B
Double L turn – D
Y turn – B
Double Y turn – D
Illusion turn – A
Wolf turn – B
Double wolf turn – D

Acro skills

Front tuck – A
Front pike – A
Front layout – B
Front 1/1 – C
Rudi – D
Front 2/1 – E
Double front – E
Double Arabian – E
Back layout 1/1 – B
Back layout 1.5 – C
Back layout 2/1 – C
Back layout 2.5 – D
Back layout 3/1 – E
Double tuck – D
Double pike – D
Full-twisting double tuck – E
Full-twisting double pike – E
Double layout – E
Whip – A


Much can go wrong in a floor routine. In many seasons, floor has been the most difficult event on which to score a 10. This is no longer the case as floor has evolved to become the highest-scoring apparatus, but there are still many areas of potential deduction. Areas that get taken almost some of the time!

As before, in this section I’m going to deviate from (deviate from = completely ignore) the code of points we’re actually supposed to be following and instead discuss the reality of what I see getting taken.

This is not an exhaustive account of deductions, but rather an overview of the main things to look out for. On floor, that means landing control, chest position, tumbling form, leap form, and leap finishing.

Landing control

Unlike in elite, where gymnasts are expected to stick tumbling elements (“Because of……” he trailed off), NCAA gymnastics has retained the controlled step back on tumbling passes, which gymnasts are permitted to do without deduction. The very best passes will be ones in which the gymnast clearly could stick the pass if she wanted to but takes a intentional presentation step back as part of a controlled extension.

This does, however, open up a giant can of ambiguity as to what constitutes a controlled step versus an uncontrolled step that would then be subject to deduction. How do you, as a viewer, know the difference?

My rule of thumb is to watch the plant leg during the step (the leg that’s not stepping). If that plant leg remains completely stationary, I call it a controlled step for no deduction. If the plant leg has to slide as well, then it’s not a controlled landing. Very commonly, you’ll see a little slide back, and that should be a little deduction of .05.

Landing errors are more heavily deducted when gymnasts are discernibly bouncing or hopping back with both feet—if that plant leg is lifting off the ground and is pulled back by the momentum of the landing, or if there’s significant travel after hitting the ground. That’s when we get into the .10+ zone, depending on the size of the hop, bound, or airplane ride.

We also get into .10+ territory when a gymnast lands short of fully completing the skill and has to take a step (even a small step) since that step is the only thing standing between her and a fall. Then, the incomplete finishing of the skill is deducted as well as the landing step.

Incomplete finishing is relevant not just on double saltos but on twisting elements as well. Gymnasts are supposed to finish twisting with their feet facing in from of them, the same direction as the head. If those feet aren’t fully around, or end up landing staggered, that can be deducted. And if it’s more than 45 degrees off, it really has to be deducted, if not downgraded as a skill. You don’t see that downgrade on tumbling skills happen too much in NCAA.

Tumbling form

The form in the air counts too. Sometimes. On double tuck or double pike skills, the legs are expected to be together without a cowboy or straddle or splay. On twisting skills, the legs and feet are also expected to be straight and together, with no crossing or helicoptering.

Caveat: gymnasts can and do get away with all of these errors, as long as they are small.

In regards to form, a significant point of separation between the best floor workers and everyone else arises in direct combination passes (typically the middle pass). Gymnasts are expected to truly lift into that second skill of the combination, rising up to at least the same height as the first skill, ideally higher.

In many cases, that second skill ends up being flat and doesn’t rise very far off the floor at all. Watch for this particularly when a front layout is the second element in a combo. You’ll often see gymnasts have to arch themselves around like a little boomerang to get their feet to the ground first. The body should stay completely straight throughout that skill, and when it doesn’t, it’s a sign that the skill wasn’t high enough, and it’s a deduction.

On that note, the amplitude of tumbling passes. There’s no specific height expectation to go by, but the idea is that the gymnasts are truly punching and rising up, not just out (those hips need to RISE), giving themselves enough height to complete the skill comfortably. The best way of evaluating whether a gymnast got enough amplitude on a pass is often through the chest position that ensues on landing.

Chest position

On no topic are there more insider-gymnastics fights than about what the appropriate chest position on landings should be.

Here are three examples of chest positions on landing. The first one I would call chest up, the second one I would call medium, and the third one I would call chest down. In NCAA, only the third one would be hit by the chest-position police with real-life deductions.

Let’s be honest, there aren’t a ton of deductions being applied in NCAA floor routines, so when chest-position deductions are applied, it’s primarily happening in extreme cases along with other deductions because the gymnast landed well short of completing the skill. Unbalanced, knee-eater landings. That’s when they’re losing real value.

Leaps and jumps

In the rush of tumbling passes, don’t forget about the dance elements, which are often the most-deducted parts of floor routines. If you every find yourself asking, “Those landings were all amazing! How did she get a 9.825?” the answer is going to be the dance elements.

As on beam, look for the full 180-degree angle in splits, legs fully extended and at minimum parallel with the floor, toes pointed and continuing the line made by the leg. Otherwise, small deductions will be taken. In general, the expectations are higher for hitting the actual leap positions on floor because…you get to do it on a floor, not on a beam.

An extra little complication to evaluating dance elements on floor is the topic of finishing position, particularly an indistinct landing position. It’s not just about hitting the 180-degree mark in the air. It’s also about fully rotating any twisting that the skill entails.

Let’s take the ever-popular, over-performed switch side + popa combination (tangent: one of the easiest, best ways to spice up NCAA floor composition would be to make the switch side a B). The switch side needs to display a distinct 1/4 turn, and the popa needs to display a distinct full turn, landing exactly where you would expect the gymnast to be after 1.25 total turns.

It can’t be a switch 1/3-ish, followed by a straddle 7/8s, that ultimately lands…somewhere? Each individual skill landing has to be crisp, defined, distinct, and correct.

Here’s an example—for a routine that received 10s from some judges, so they clearly didn’t have a problem with it—where the straddle split positions look fine but the landings are…where?

It’s closer to a switch side 1/2 to straddle 3/4. But it’s not quite that either. It’s indistinct. In between the intended elements. The landing position is supposed to be clear, neither under nor over, in order to show full control of the elements. This example is unlikely to get deducted because she ultimately twists past where she’s supposed to end up, but if gymnasts are under, we should see a deduction and will (rarely) see an actual downgrade in the skills.

In NCAA, you’ll also see a number of switch rings performed on floor, and something to keep an eye on there (in addition to actually hitting the ring position) is whether the skill is performed in two parts, which is bad. In a correct switch ring, the front leg hits split position at the same time the back leg hits ring position. Often, you’ll see gymnasts in NCAA hit a split position with the front leg, but by the time the ring position is hit with the back leg, the front leg has dropped to a 45-degree angle. That’s not the ideal execution of that skill.


And then there’s artistry. Up to three tenths of artistry deductions can be taken on floor in NCAA, in addition to a potential missing-synchronization deduction of .05.

My feeling about artistry on floor is that there’s no accounting for taste, so there’s no deducting for taste. You can’t deduct a routine for artistry simply because you don’t like it. To use an example I discussed a lot, I did not like Angi Cipra’s cellphone routine, but she committed to the theme with full effort and full dynamic performance, engaged the viewer, and warranted no artistry deductions, even though it was not my cup of tea. My cup of tea is irrelevant.

At least for scoring purposes. The cup of tea is very relevant when we come back here to the live blogs and drink it together.

You can, however, deduct a routine for artistry when presented with a lack of effort, lack of investment in a style or a character, posing, stalling, thinking that a smile counts as performing, elite dead face, or no intent to hit a beat. That’s where artistry deductions come in. But because NCAA gymnastics is so audience-engagement-based, we don’t see that as much as we do in elite. It happens, especially with new ones who aren’t used to it yet, but there is significant time and effort placed on performing something engaged in NCAA (even if the routine is super stupid).

And there’s still quite a large contingent in gymnastics that thinks smiling = performing. Paste that smile on, everyone will talk about how much “personality” you’re showing, and no one will take any artistry deductions because apparently this is a toddler pageant and not a real sport for grown-ass women.

So, are serious deductions actually being taken for artistry at the top level of NCAA? I don’t think so. The scores are all too high to expect they include artistry deductions as well as the form deductions mentioned above.

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